The Mg Hypothesis of Cardiovascular Disease: A Bibliography

Nutritional Magnesium is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome, Cardiovascular Disease and its Risk Factors, and Other NCDs, A Bibliography

A. Rosanoff

Center for Magnesium Education & Research, LLC

Latest update:  June 14, 2012

The Mg Hypothesis of Cardiovascular Disease

Seelig M S and Heggtveit H A 1974 Magnesium interrelationships in ischemic heart disease: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 27, 59-79.

Seelig M S 1980 Magnesium Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Disease, Early Roots of Cardiovascular,Skeletal, and Renal Abnormalities. Plenum Medical Book Co, New York & London.

Marier J R 1982 Quantitative Factors Regarding Magnesium Status in the Modern-Day World. Magnesium 1, 3-15.

Seelig M S and Rosanoff A 2003 The Magnesium Factor. Avery Penguin Group, New York. 376 p.

Altura B M and Altura B T 2007 Magnesium:  Forgotten Mineral in Cardiovascular Biology and Atherogenesis. In New Perspectives in Magnesium Research, Nutrition and Health, Eds Y Nishizawa, H Morii and J Durlach. pp 239-260. Springer-Verlag, London.

 

Metabolic Syndrome

Resnick L M 1992 Cellular ions in hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes: a unifying theme. J Am Soc Nephrol 3, S78-85.

Resnick L M 1993 Ionic basis of hypertension, insulin resistance, vascular disease, and related disorders. The mechanism of "syndrome X". Am J Hypertens 6, 123S-134S.

Song Y, Ridker P M, Manson J E, Cook N R, Buring J E and Liu S 2005 Magnesium intake, C-reactive protein, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older U.S. women. Diabetes Care 28, 1438-1444.

He K, Song Y, Belin R J and Chen Y 2006 Magnesium intake and the metabolic syndrome: epidemiologic evidence to date. J Cardiometab Syndr 1, 351-355.

Barbagallo M and Dominguez L J 2007 Magnesium metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Arch Biochem Biophys 458, 40-47.

Evangelopoulos A A, Vallianou N G, Panagiotakos D B, Georgiou A, Zacharias G A, Alevra A N, Zalokosta G J, Vogiatzakis E D and Avgerinos P C 2008 An inverse relationship between cumulating components of the metabolic syndrome and serum magnesium levels. Nutrition research (New York, N.Y 28, 659-663.

Volpe S L 2008 Magnesium, the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 48, 293-300.

Champagne C M 2008 Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract 23, 142-151.

 

Heart Disease

 

Altura B M 1988 Ischemic heart disease and magnesium. Magnesium 7, 57-67.

Chakraborti S, Chakraborti T, Mandal M, Mandal A, Das S and Ghosh S 2002 Protective role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases: a review. Molecular and cellular biochemistry 238, 163-179.

Dittrich S, Germanakis J, Dahnert I, Stiller B, Dittrich H, Vogel M and Lange P E 2003 Randomised trial on the influence of continuous magnesium infusion on arrhythmias following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for congenital heart disease. Intensive Care Med 29, 1141-1144.

Franz K B and Bailey S M 2004 Geographical variations in heart deaths and diabetes: effect of climate and a possible relationship to magnesium. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 521S-524S.

Al-Delaimy W K, Rimm E B, Willett W C, Stampfer M J and Hu F B 2004 Magnesium intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 63-70.

Iezhitsa I N 2005 Potassium and magnesium depletions in congestive heart failure--pathophysiology, consequences and replenishment. Clin Calcium 15, 123-133.

Miller S, Crystal E, Garfinkle M, Lau C, Lashevsky I and Connolly S J 2005 Effects of magnesium on atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Heart 91, 618-623.

Yokoyama A, Kikuchi K and Kawamura Y 2005 [Heart rate variability, arrhythmia and magnesium in hemodialysis patients]. Clin Calcium 15, 226-232.

Ueshima K 2005 Magnesium and ischemic heart disease: a review of epidemiological, experimental, and clinical evidences. Magnes Res 18, 275-284.

Ohtsuka S and Yamaguchi I 2005 [Magnesium in congestive heart failure]. Clin Calcium 15, 181-186.

Pokan R, Hofmann P, von Duvillard S P, Smekal G, Wonisch M, Lettner K, Schmid P, Shechter M, Silver B and Bachl N 2006 Oral magnesium therapy, exercise heart rate, exercise tolerance, and myocardial function in coronary artery disease patients. Br J Sports Med 40, 773-778.

Leone N, Courbon D, Ducimetiere P and Zureik M 2006 Zinc, copper, and magnesium and risks for all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality. Epidemiology 17, 308-314.

Alon I, Gorelik O, Berman S, Almoznino-Sarafian D, Shteinshnaider M, Weissgarten J, Modai D and Cohen N 2006 Intracellular magnesium in elderly patients with heart failure: effects of diabetes and renal dysfunction. J Trace Elem Med Biol 20, 221-226.

Fuentes J C, Salmon A A and Silver M A 2006 Acute and chronic oral magnesium supplementation: effects on endothelial function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Congest Heart Fail 12, 9-13.

 Gao X, Peng L, Adhikari C M, Lin J and Zuo Z 2007 Spironolactone reduced arrhythmia and maintained magnesium homeostasis in patients with congestive heart failure. J Card Fail 13, 170-177.

Nielsen F H, Milne D B, Klevay L M, Gallagher S and Johnson L 2007 Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr 26, 121-132.

Adamopoulos C, Pitt B, Sui X, Love T E, Zannad F and Ahmed A 2009 Low serum magnesium and cardiovascular mortality in chronic heart failure: a propensity-matched study. Int J Cardiol 136, 270-277.

Almoznino-Sarafian D, Sarafian G, Berman S, Shteinshnaider M, Tzur I, Cohen N and Gorelik O 2009 Magnesium administration may improve heart rate variability in patients with heart failure. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 19, 641-645.

Stepura O B and Martynow A I 2009 Magnesium orotate in severe congestive heart failure (MACH). Int J Cardiol 131, 293-295.

Mathers T W and Beckstrand R L 2009 Oral magnesium supplementation in adults with coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease risk. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 21, 651-657.

 Khan A M, Sullivan L, McCabe E, Levy D, Vasan R S and Wang T J 2010 Lack of association between serum magnesium and the risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J 160, 715-720.  Note:  compare negative results in abstract with significant (p = 0.04) for age & sex adjusted results in Table III.  AR

Peacock J M, Ohira T, Post W, Sotoodehnia N, Rosamond W and Folsom A R 2010 Serum magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J 160, 464-470.

Chiuve S E, Korngold E C, Januzzi J L, Jr., Gantzer M L and Albert C M 2011 Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 253-260.

Zhang, W., H. Iso, et al. (2012). "Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: the JACC study." Atherosclerosis 221(2): 587-95.

Stroke

Sun X, Mei Y and Tong E 2000 Effect of magnesium on nitric oxide synthase of neurons in cortex during early period of cerebral ischemia. J Tongji Med Univ 20, 13-15, 42.

Massey L K 2001 Dairy food consumption, blood pressure and stroke. J Nutr 131, 1875-1878.

Muir K W 2001 Magnesium for neuroprotection in ischaemic stroke: rationale for use and evidence of effectiveness. CNS Drugs 15, 921-930.

Amighi J, Sabeti S, Schlager O, Mlekusch W, Exner M, Lalouschek W, Ahmadi R, Minar E and Schillinger M 2004 Low serum magnesium predicts neurological events in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. Stroke 35, 22-27.

Demougeot C, Bobillier-Chaumont S, Mossiat C, Marie C and Berthelot A 2004 Effect of diets with different magnesium content in ischemic stroke rats. Neurosci Lett 362, 17-20.

Monarca S, Donato F, Zerbini I, Calderon R L and Craun G F 2006 Review of epidemiological studies on drinking water hardness and cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 13, 495-506.

Cojocaru I M, Cojocaru M, Burcin C and Atanasiu N A 2007 Serum magnesium in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Rom J Intern Med 45, 269-273.

Aslanyan S, Weir C J, Muir K W and Lees K R 2007 Magnesium for treatment of acute lacunar stroke syndromes: further analysis of the IMAGES trial. Stroke 38, 1269-1273.

Champagne C M 2008 Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract 23, 142-151.

Larsson S C, Virtanen M J, Mars M, Mannisto S, Pietinen P, Albanes D and Virtamo J 2008 Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes and risk of stroke in male smokers. Arch Intern Med 168, 459-465.

 Ohira T, Peacock J M, Iso H, Chambless L E, Rosamond W D and Folsom A R 2009 Serum and dietary magnesium and risk of ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Epidemiol 169, 1437-1444.

 Bayir A, Ak A, Kara H and Sahin T K 2009 Serum and cerebrospinal fluid magnesium levels, Glasgow Coma Scores, and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute stroke. Biol Trace Elem Res 130, 7-12.

 Larsson S C, Mannisto S, Virtanen M J, Kontto J, Albanes D and Virtamo J 2009 Dietary fiber and fiber-rich food intake in relation to risk of stroke in male smokers. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 1016-1024.

Larsson S C, Virtamo J and Wolk A 2011 Potassium, calcium, and magnesium intakes and risk of stroke in women. Am J Epidemiol 174, 35-43.

Larsson S C, Orsini N and Wolk A 2012 Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 362-366.

Zhang, W., H. Iso, et al. (2012). "Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: the JACC study." Atherosclerosis 221(2): 587-95.

 

Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Obesity

 

Resnick L M 1992 Cellular ions in hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes: a unifying theme. J Am Soc Nephrol 3, S78-85.

 

Izmozherova N V, Popov A A, Fominykh M I, Andreev A N, Striukova O, Tagil'tseva N V and Gavrilova E I 2007 [Magnesium deficit in climacteric women]. Klin Med (Mosk) 85, 62-64.

Champagne C M 2008 Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract 23, 142-151.

 

Johansson H E, Zethelius B, Ohrvall M, Sundbom M and Haenni A 2009 Serum magnesium status after gastric bypass surgery in obesity. Obes Surg 19, 1250-1255.

 

Central (Abdominal) Obesity

Sowers J R and Draznin B 1998 Insulin, cation metabolism and insulin resistance. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 9, 223-233.

Corica F, Corsonello A, Ientile R, Cucinotta D, Di Benedetto A, Perticone F, Dominguez L J and Barbagallo M 2006 Serum ionized magnesium levels in relation to metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 210-215.

Katcher H I, Legro R S, Kunselman A R, Gillies P J, Demers L M, Bagshaw D M and Kris-Etherton P M 2008 The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 79-90.

Johansson H E, Zethelius B, Ohrvall M, Sundbom M and Haenni A 2009 Serum magnesium status after gastric bypass surgery in obesity. Obes Surg 19, 1250-1255.

 

High Blood Triglycerides

Rasmussen H S 1989 Clinical intervention studies on magnesium in myocardial infarction. Magnesium 8, 316-325.

Djurhuus M S, Henriksen J E, Klitgaard N A, Blaabjerg O, Thye-Ronn P, Altura B M, Altura B T and Beck-Nielsen H 1999 Effect of moderate improvement in metabolic control on magnesium and lipid concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 546-554.

Singh R B, Rastogi S S, Sharma V K, Saharia R B and Kulshretha S K 1990 Can dietary magnesium modulate lipoprotein metabolism? Magnes Trace Elem 9, 255-264.

Corica F, Corsonello A, Ientile R, Cucinotta D, Di Benedetto A, Perticone F, Dominguez L J and Barbagallo M 2006 Serum ionized magnesium levels in relation to metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 210-215.

Olatunji L A and Soladoye A O 2007 Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med Sci 36, 155-161.

 

Low HDL Cholesterol (Low “good” cholesterol)

Davis W H, Leary W P, Reyes A J and Olhaberry J V 1984 Monotherapy with magnesium increases abnormally low high density lipopritein cholesterol:  a clinical assay. Curr Therap Res 36, 341-344.

Rasmussen H S, Aurup P, Goldstein K, McNair P, Mortensen P B, Larsen O G and Lawaetz H 1989 Influence of magnesium substitution therapy on blood lipid composition in patients with ischemic heart disease. A double-blind, placebo controlled study. Arch Intern Med 149, 1050-1053.

Singh R B, Rastogi S S, Sharma V K, Saharia R B and Kulshretha S K 1990 Can dietary magnesium modulate lipoprotein metabolism? Magnes Trace Elem 9, 255-264.

Corica F, Allegra A, Di Benedetto A, Giacobbe M S, Romano G, Cucinotta D, Buemi M and Ceruso D 1994 Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Magnes Res 7, 43-47.

Sowers J R and Draznin B 1998 Insulin, cation metabolism and insulin resistance. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 9, 223-233.

Djurhuus M S, Henriksen J E, Klitgaard N A, Blaabjerg O, Thye-Ronn P, Altura B M, Altura B T and Beck-Nielsen H 1999 Effect of moderate improvement in metabolic control on magnesium and lipid concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 546-554.

Guerrero-Romero F and Rodriguez-Moran M 2000 Hypomagnesemia is linked to low serum HDL-cholesterol irrespective of serum glucose values. Journal of diabetes and its complications 14, 272-276.

Olatunji L A and Soladoye A O 2007 Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med Sci 36, 155-161.

 

High Blood Pressure

Resnick L M 1992 Cellular calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension and related metabolic disorders. Am J Med 93, 11S-20S.

Resnick L M 1992 Cellular ions in hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes: a unifying theme. J Am Soc Nephrol 3, S78-85.

Pham P C, Pham P M, Pham S V, Miller J M and Pham P T 2007 Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2, 366-373.

Barbagallo M, Dominguez L J and Resnick L M 2007 Magnesium metabolism in hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Ther 14, 375-385.

Touyz R M 2008 Transient receptor potential melastatin 6 and 7 channels, magnesium transport, and vascular biology: implications in hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294, H1103-1118.

Champagne C M 2008 Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract 23, 142-151.

Ohira T, Peacock J M, Iso H, Chambless L E, Rosamond W D and Folsom A R 2009 Serum and dietary magnesium and risk of ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Epidemiol 169, 1437-1444.

Johansson H E, Zethelius B, Ohrvall M, Sundbom M and Haenni A 2009 Serum magnesium status after gastric bypass surgery in obesity. Obes Surg 19, 1250-1255.

Rosanoff A 2010 Magnesium supplements may enhance the effect of antihypertensive medications in stage 1 hypertensive subjects. Magnes Res 23, 27-40.

 

High Fasting Glucose

Olatunji L A and Soladoye A O 2007 Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med Sci 36, 155-161.

Johansson H E, Zethelius B, Ohrvall M, Sundbom M and Haenni A 2009 Serum magnesium status after gastric bypass surgery in obesity. Obes Surg 19, 1250-1255.

 

Impaired Glucose Tolerance

Sowers J R and Draznin B 1998 Insulin, cation metabolism and insulin resistance. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 9, 223-233.

Barbagallo M and Dominguez L J 2007 Magnesium metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Arch Biochem Biophys 458, 40-47.

Pham P C, Pham P M, Pham S V, Miller J M and Pham P T 2007 Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2, 366-373.

Nielsen F H, Milne D B, Klevay L M, Gallagher S and Johnson L 2007 Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr 26, 121-132.

 

Diabetes

Anetor J I, Senjobi A, Ajose O A and Agbedana E O 2002 Decreased serum magnesium and zinc levels: atherogenic implications in type-2 diabetes mellitus in Nigerians. Nutrition and health (Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire) 16, 291-300.

Pham P C, Pham P M, Pham S V, Miller J M and Pham P T 2007 Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2, 366-373.

Barbagallo M and Dominguez L J 2007 Magnesium metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Arch Biochem Biophys 458, 40-47.

Barbagallo M, Dominguez L J and Resnick L M 2007 Magnesium metabolism in hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Ther 14, 375-385.

Larsson S C and Wolk A 2007 Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Intern Med 262, 208-214.

Champagne C M 2008 Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract 23, 142-151.

Curiel-Garcia J A, Rodriguez-Moran M and Guerrero-Romero F 2008 Hypomagnesemia and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Magnes Res 21, 163-166.

Volpe S L 2008 Magnesium, the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 48, 293-300.

Ohira T, Peacock J M, Iso H, Chambless L E, Rosamond W D and Folsom A R 2009 Serum and dietary magnesium and risk of ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Epidemiol 169, 1437-1444.

Kim D J, Xun P, Liu K, Loria C, Yokota K, Jacobs D R, Jr. and He K 2010 Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes. Diabetes Care.

Rosanoff A 2010 Rising Ca:Mg intake ratio from food in USA Adults: a concern? Magnes Res 23, 181-193.

 

Insulin Resistance

Resnick L M 1992 Cellular calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension and related metabolic disorders. Am J Med 93, 11S-20S.

Laires M J, Moreira H, Monteiro C P, Sardinha L, Limao F, Veiga L, Goncalves A, Ferreira A and Bicho M 2004 Magnesium, insulin resistance and body composition in healthy postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 510S-513S.

Barbagallo M and Dominguez L J 2007 Magnesium metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Arch Biochem Biophys 458, 40-47.

Barbagallo M, Dominguez L J and Resnick L M 2007 Magnesium metabolism in hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Ther 14, 375-385.

Volpe S L 2008 Magnesium, the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 48, 293-300.

Wells I C 2008 Evidence that the etiology of the syndrome containing type 2 diabetes mellitus results from abnormal magnesium metabolism. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 86, 16-24.

Kim D J, Xun P, Liu K, Loria C, Yokota K, Jacobs D R, Jr. and He K 2010 Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes. Diabetes Care.

Liu Z M and Ho S C 2011 The association of serum C-reactive protein, uric acid and magnesium with insulin resistance in Chinese postmenopausal women with prediabetes or early untreated diabetes. Maturitas 70, 176-181.

 

Elevated Plasma Insulin

He K, Liu K, Daviglus M L, Morris S J, Loria C M, Van Horn L, Jacobs D R, Jr. and Savage P J 2006 Magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome among young adults. Circulation 113, 1675-1682.

 

Microalbuminuria

Sowers J R and Draznin B 1998 Insulin, cation metabolism and insulin resistance. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 9, 223-233.

Corsonello A, Ientile R, Buemi M, Cucinotta D, Mauro V N, Macaione S and Corica F 2000 Serum ionized magnesium levels in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria or clinical proteinuria. Am J Nephrol 20, 187-192.

Corica F, Corsonello A, Ientile R, Cucinotta D, Di Benedetto A, Perticone F, Dominguez L J and Barbagallo M 2006 Serum ionized magnesium levels in relation to metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 210-215.

 

Family History of Heart Disease

 

Seelig M S and Rosanoff A 2003 The Magnesium Factor.  Chapter 7.  Avery Penguin Group, New York. pp 176-199.

 

Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome

A definite association:  Muneyyirci-Delale O, Nacharaju V L, Dalloul M, Jalou S, Rahman M, Altura B M and Altura B T 2001 Divalent cations in women with PCOS: implications for cardiovascular disease. Gynecol Endocrinol 15, 198-201.

A definite non-association:  Kauffman R P, Tullar P E, Nipp R D and Castracane V D 2011 Serum magnesium concentrations and metabolic variables in polycystic ovary syndrome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 90, 452-458.

 

Postprandial accumulation of TG-rich lipoproteins

Kishimoto Y, Tani M, Uto-Kondo H, Saita E, Iizuka M, Sone H, Yokota K and Kondo K 2010 Effects of magnesium on postprandial serum lipid responses in healthy human subjects. Br J Nutr 103, 469-472.

 

Hemodynamic changes

Sakuraba S, Serita R, Kosugi S, Eriksson L I, Lindahl S G and Takeda J 2006 Pretreatment with magnesium sulphate is associated with less succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and subsequent tracheal intubation-induced hemodynamic changes than precurarization with vecuronium during rapid sequence induction. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 57, 253-257.

Trekova N A, Andrianova M, Tolstova I A, Aksel'rod B A, Zaitseva S V and Morozov Iu A 2008 [Use of a potassium and magnesium asparaginate solution to maintain the balance of potassium and magnesium during cardiosurgical interventions under extracorporeal circulation]. Anesteziol Reanimatol, 17-21.

Pakfetrat M, Roozbeh Shahroodi J, Malekmakan L, Zare N, Hashemi Nasab M and Hossein Nikoo M 2010 Is there an association between intradialytic hypotension and serum magnesium changes? Hemodial Int 14, 492-497.

Aksel'rod B A, Tolstova I A, Andrianova M and Trekova N A 2011 [The role of magnesium in the implementation of vascular reactions during anesthesia in cardiac surgery patients]. Anesteziol Reanimatol, 8-13.

Shin Y H, Choi S J, Jeong H Y and Kim M H 2011 Evaluation of dose effects of magnesium sulfate on rocuronium injection pain and hemodynamic changes by laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Korean J Anesthesiol 60, 329-333.

 

Renal sodium retention

 

Itoh K, Kawasaka T and Nakamura M 1997 The effects of high oral magnesium supplementation on blood pressure, serum lipids and related variables in apparently healthy Japanese subjects. Br J Nutr 78, 737-750.

 

Prothrombotic Factors

 

Paolisso G, Tirelli A, Coppola L, Verrazzo G, Pizza G, Sgambato S and D'Onofrio F 1989 Magnesium administration reduces platelet hyperaggregability in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 12, 167-168.

 

Herzog W R, Atar D, Gurbel P A, Vogel R A, Schlossberg M L and Serebruany V L 1993 Effect of magnesium sulphate infusion on ex vivo platelet aggregation in swine. Magnes Res 6, 349-353.

Gawaz M, Ott I, Reininger A J and Neumann F J 1994 Effects of magnesium on platelet aggregation and adhesion. Magnesium modulates surface expression of glycoproteins on platelets in vitro and ex vivo. Thromb Haemost 72, 912-918.

Abbott L, Nadler J and Rude R K 1994 Magnesium deficiency in alcoholism: possible contribution to osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 18, 1076-1082.

Gawaz M 1996 [Antithrombocytic effectiveness of magnesium]. Fortschr Med 114, 329-332.

Shechter M 2000 The role of magnesium as antithrombotic therapy. Wien Med Wochenschr 150, 343-347.

Altura B M and Altura B T 2007 Magnesium:  Forgotten Mineral in Cardiovascular Biology and Atherogenesis. In New Perspectives in Magnesium Research, Nutrition and Health, Eds Y Nishizawa, H Morii and J Durlach. pp 239-260. Springer-Verlag, London.

 

Fibrinogen & Other Inflammation Markers

Rayssiguier Y and Mazur A 2005 [Magnesium and inflammation: lessons from animal models]. Clin Calcium 15, 245-248.

Mazur A, Maier J A, Rock E, Gueux E, Nowacki W and Rayssiguier Y 2007 Magnesium and the inflammatory response: potential physiopathological implications. Arch Biochem Biophys 458, 48-56.

Nielsen F H 2010 Magnesium, inflammation, and obesity in chronic disease. Nutr Rev 68, 333-340.

Kim D J, Xun P, Liu K, Loria C, Yokota K, Jacobs D R, Jr. and He K 2010 Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes. Diabetes Care.

 

C-Reactive Protein

 

Sakkinen P, Abbott R D, Curb J D, Rodriguez B L, Yano K and Tracy R P 2002 C-reactive protein and myocardial infarction. J Clin Epidemiol 55, 445-451.

Guerrero-Romero F and Rodriguez-Moran M 2002 Relationship between serum magnesium levels and C-reactive protein concentration, in non-diabetic, non-hypertensive obese subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 469-474.

Song Y, Ridker P M, Manson J E, Cook N R, Buring J E and Liu S 2005 Magnesium intake, C-reactive protein, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older U.S. women. Diabetes Care 28, 1438-1444.

Nanri A, Moore M A and Kono S 2007 Impact of C-reactive protein on disease risk and its relation to dietary factors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 8, 167-177.

Almoznino-Sarafian D, Berman S, Mor A, Shteinshnaider M, Gorelik O, Tzur I, Alon I, Modai D and Cohen N 2007 Magnesium and C-reactive protein in heart failure: an anti-inflammatory effect of magnesium administration? Eur J Nutr 46, 230-237.

Evangelopoulos A A, Vallianou N G, Panagiotakos D B, Georgiou A, Zacharias G A, Alevra A N, Zalokosta G J, Vogiatzakis E D and Avgerinos P C 2008 An inverse relationship between cumulating components of the metabolic syndrome and serum magnesium levels. Nutrition research (New York, N.Y 28, 659-663.

Katcher H I, Legro R S, Kunselman A R, Gillies P J, Demers L M, Bagshaw D M and Kris-Etherton P M 2008 The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 79-90.

Pakfetrat M, Malekmakan L, Roozbeh J and Haghpanah S 2008 Magnesium and its relationship to C-reactive protein among hemodialysis patients. Magnes Res 21, 167-170.

Nielsen F H, Johnson L K and Zeng H 2010 Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep. Magnes Res 23, 158-168.

Kim D J, Xun P, Liu K, Loria C, Yokota K, Jacobs D R, Jr. and He K 2010 Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes. Diabetes Care.

 

Endothelial-dependent vasodilatation

Fuentes J C, Salmon A A and Silver M A 2006 Acute and chronic oral magnesium supplementation: effects on endothelial function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Congest Heart Fail 12, 9-13.

 

Tobacco Smoking

Seelig M S and Rosanoff A 2003 The Magnesium Factor.  Chapter 8.  Avery Penguin Group, New York. pp 204 – 206.

 

 

Other NCDs

Cancer

Rubin H 2005 Central roles of Mg2+ and MgATP2- in the regulation of protein synthesis and cell proliferation: significance for neoplastic transformation. Adv Cancer Res 93, 1-58.

Dai Q, Shrubsole M J, Ness R M, Schlundt D, Cai Q, Smalley W E, Li M, Shyr Y and Zheng W 2007 The relation of magnesium and calcium intakes and a genetic polymorphism in the magnesium transporter to colorectal neoplasia risk. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 743-751.

Dai Q and Baron J 2008 “Magnesium, calcium, and colorectal adenoma recurrence: Results from a randomized trial”. Seventh Annual American Association for Cancer Research International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research

Leone N, Courbon D, Ducimetiere P and Zureik M 2006 Zinc, copper, and magnesium and risks for all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality. Epidemiology 17, 308-314.

Wolf F I, Cittadini A R and Maier J A 2009 Magnesium and tumors: ally or foe? Cancer Treat Rev 35, 378-382.

Anghileri L J 2009 Magnesium, calcium and cancer. Magnes Res 22, 247-255.

Rosanoff A 2010 Rising Ca:Mg intake ratio from food in USA Adults: a concern? Magnes Res 23, 181-193.

 

Osteoporosis

Rude R K, Gruber H E, Norton H J, Wei L Y, Frausto A and Mills B G 2004 Bone Loss Induced by Dietary Magnesium Reduction to 10% of the Nutrient Requirement in Rats Is Associated with Increased Release of Substance P and Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}. J. Nutr. 134, 79-85.

Launius B K, Brown P A, Cush E M and Mancini M C 2004 Osteoporosis: The dynamic relationship between magnesium and bone mineral density in the heart transplant patient. Crit Care Nurs Q 27, 96-100.

Izmozherova N V, Popov A A, Fominykh M I, Andreev A N, Striukova O, Tagil'tseva N V and Gavrilova E I 2007 [Magnesium deficit in climacteric women]. Klin Med (Mosk) 85, 62-64.

Rude R K, Singer F R and Gruber H E 2009 Skeletal and hormonal effects of magnesium deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr 28, 131-141.

 

COPD

Aziz H S, Blamoun A I, Shubair M K, Ismail M M, DeBari V A and Khan M A 2005 Serum magnesium levels and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a retrospective study. Ann Clin Lab Sci 35, 423-427.

Ruljancic N, Popovic-Grle S, Rumenjak V, Sokolic B, Malic A, Mihanovic M and Cepelak I 2007 COPD: magnesium in the plasma and polymorphonuclear cells of patients during a stable phase. COPD 4, 41-47.

Bhatt S P, Khandelwal P, Nanda S, Stoltzfus J C and Fioravanti G T 2008 Serum magnesium is an independent predictor of frequent readmissions due to acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Med 102, 999-1003.

do Amaral A F, Rodrigues-Junior A L, Terra Filho J, Vannucchi H and Martinez J A 2008 Effects of acute magnesium loading on pulmonary function of stable COPD patients. Med Sci Monit 14, CR524-529.

 

The RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) is the amount of an essential nutrient that will meet the daily requirement for almost all (97.5%) HEALTHY individuals in a given gender and age-range group.

The magnesium and calcium RDA for in this age range () is:

According to the USDA’s 2001-2 survey, there’s a % chance you are getting less than your daily magnesium requirement from the foods you eat.

Press "Continue" to take a short questionaire that will estimate your risk of magnesium deficiency.

I drink milk with enriched vitamin D?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I take vitamin D suplements?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I spend an hour or more in the sunlight?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I drink bottled deionized water?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I drink sodas with phosphoric acid?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

All colas and Dr. Pepper type drinks, with or without caffeine, with or without sugar, have phosphoric acid in them.
Here’s how much:
Size of Drink Phosphorus
X-small - 12 oz 39 to 44 mg
Small - 16 oz 52 to 59 mg
Med - 22 oz 71 to 81 mg
Large - 32 oz 104 to 118 mg
X-large - 44 oz 143 to 162 mg
All other sodas have no phosphorus.

I eat candy?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I eat pastries, cakes, pies or desserts?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I have sugar in my coffee?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I eat white bread (including bagels, croissante, muffins, french bread, croutons, crackers, etc.)?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I eat pasta, spagehetti or noodles (including Chinese noodles)?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

My diet is high in saturated fat?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I take a calcium supplement with no added magnesium?

 Never  Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

 

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I use cocaine?

 Never  Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

 

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I feel stressed?

 Never  Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

 

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I drink alcohol?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Daily  Often

(less then once a month)

(less then twice a week)

(2 to 4 times per week)

(4 to 7 times per week)

(more than once a day)

I eat whole grain foods three times each day?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Almost Daily  Every Day

(or never)

(less then once a week)

(1 to 2 times per week)

(3 to 6 times per week)

 

I eat 7 to 9 servings of fruits/vegetables?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Almost Daily  Every Day

(or never)

(less then once a week)

(1 to 2 times per week)

(3 to 6 times per week)

 

I eat nuts or legumes?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Almost Daily  Every Day

(or never)

(less then once a week)

(1 to 2 times per week)

(3 to 6 times per week)

 

I eat very dark chocolate?

 Very seldom  Seldom  Weekly  Almost Daily  Every Day

(or never)

(less then once a week)

(1 to 2 times per week)

(3 to 6 times per week)

 

I have high blood pressure (treated or not)?

     True  False    

I have high cholesterol (high LDL cholesterol and/or low HDL cholesterol)?

     True  False    

I have type 2 diabetes or high fasting glucose?

     True  False    

I take thiazide diuretics?

     True  False    

I use digitalis?

     True  False    

My family has a history of heart disease?

     True  False    

You have a low risk of a magnesium deficit.

Congratulations! You are doing a good job. Keep up the good life style; you should not be having any Mg deficit symptoms.

If you do, you may be in the process of building up your magnesium status after an illness, an extended time of poorer habits or a particularly stressful period. If none of these fit your situation, any symptoms you are experiencing on the magnesium deficit list are probably due to another cause, and you might want to consult with a health care specialist.

You have a mild risk of a magnesium deficit.

You are doing well in your Life Style. You can most probably move into safe magnesium status by including more foods high in magnesium in your daily life. Look over the Mg deficit symptoms to see if any apply to you before you decide whether to add Mg supplements to your daily routine for awhile. If you do, get tips by reading Treatment on this webpage.

You have a moderate risk of a magnesium deficit.

Your life style is generally healthy, but you could improve your magnesium intake to be really safe. Check out the foods high in magnesium to see which high magnesium foods you would enjoy adding to your daily life, and look over the Mg deficit symptoms.

If you have some of these symptoms, consider adding a magnesium supplement to your daily life for three months as you also add more high magnesium foods to your diet (see Treatment for more tips on assessing and correcting a borderline or deficit Mg status).

You have a high risk of a magnesium deficit.

You need to make some changes to protect your health from illness and to optimize your life. Go now to the Treatment page of this website to get a good start. You will probably need to add more high magnesium foods to your daily life as well as to supplement with magnesium, depending on how many Mg deficit symptoms you are experiencing.

You have a very high risk of a magnesium deficit.

Make an assessment of your Mg deficit symptoms right away, and if you have two or more, you should consider a daily magnesium supplement for at least three months at as high a level of magnesium that is comfortable for your digestive tract. During that same three months, add daily foods you like that are high in magnesium.

See the treatment section of this webpage for tips on correcting any magnesium deficit you may have. If you are treated by a physician, show him/her this webpage to work towards a healthy magnesium status for you.